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Sunday, September 6, 2009

Bird's in Sri lanka (Part 4)

Rathnalal Kottoruwa - Sri Lanka Yellow Fronted Barbet

Rannalal Kottoruwa
Endemic & Threatened Birds in Sri Lanka
Local Name : The Yellow-Fronted Barbet
Scientific Name : Megalaima flavifrons (Cuvier)

1. Between the Red-vented Bulbul and Common Mynah in size. Sexes alike. The yellow forehead, blue face, and comparatively small beak, distinguish this bird from the last.

2. Throughout its range it is a common bird, not shy, and well known for its resounding calls, which form a pleasant feature of its haunts.The Yellow-fronted Barbet feeds on numerous kinds of berries, wild figs, and cultivated fruits such as guavas and pawpaws-being rather a pest in orchards. It feeds its young mainly on fruit, but also on some animal food as W.W.A. Philips has published a photograph of one at its nest-hole with a gecko in its beak.

The breeding season is from February to May, with a secondary season in August-September, but an occasional nest may be found at other times of the year. The nest-hole is very similar to that of the Brown-headed Barbet but slightly smaller- about two inches in diameter. The cavity inside is oval and, if a new one, is about eight inches deep; but sometimes the birds use a nest for several years running, digging it deeper each year until it may be two feet or more deep. The height from the ground varies greatly, but is usually from six to ten feet. The two or three white, and smooth but not glossy, eggs measure about 28 × 21 mm.

3. It is mainly a bird of the hills which it ascends to at least 6,500 feet, but it is found in many parts of the low-country wet zone, and in scattered colonies in some dry-zone districts to the east of the mountains. In many of its habits it resembles the Brown-headed Barbet, but is more partial to heavy forest although by no means confined to it.

Oluwa Rathu Kottoruwa - Sri Lanka Crimson Barbet

Oluwa Rathu Kottoruwa
Endemic & Threatened Birds in Sri Lanka
Local Name : Crimson-fronted Barbet
Scientific Name : Megalaima rubricapilla (Gmelin)

1. Slightly larger than a sparrow. Sexes alike. The bright green upperparts, orange-yellow-face and throat-patches, and very small scarlet breast-spot, distinguish it from the Crimson-breasted Barbet.

2. Out of the breeding season it is very gregarious, forming large, scattered flocks especially in the neighbourhood of fruiting trees, such as banyan, bo, and other wild figs; like all barbets it is predominantly a fruit eater. After gorging themselves, they repair to the top branches and indulge in their hobby of vocal music, making the air pulsate with the chorus of pop op oping-to the distraction of their human audience.

The breeding season is from January to June. The nest-hole is indistinguishable from that of the Crimsone-breasted Barbet, but is more often, I think, dug into the lower surface of a sloping branch rather than into an upright post, and is usually higher in a tree than with that species. Dead branches of breadfruit, dadap, and flamboyant are much favoured as nesting site by both species. Two or three white eggs are laid on the bare wood at the bottom of cavity; they measure about 25.5 x 18.2 mm.

3. This is a very common bird in cultivated or openly-wooded country throughout the wet zone up to 4,000 feet, and in scattered colonies in parts of the dry zone.

Hisa Kalu Kondaya - Black-crested Bulbul

Hisakalu Kondaya
Endemic & Threatened Birds in Sri Lanka
Local Name : The Black-capped Bulbul
Scientific Name : Pycnontus melanicterus(Gmelin)

1. Rather smaller than the Red-vented Bulbul. In general coloration some what like the preceding species, but at once distinguished by its black cap and white-tipped, dark-brown tail.

2. It is found in pairs or small parties. Its call-note is a plaintive, minor-key whistle on an ascending scale, something like yor, yer ye, or wer wer we we - each syllable higher than the last.

The nest is very similar to the small ones of Red-vented Bulbul. It is a cup, composed of small twigs, rootlets, etc., rather flimsily built, and line scantily with fibres. It is well concealed among foliage, either in a low bush or in a small tree growing in a wooded ravine or on the outskirts of forest, etc. The eggs normally number two, and they resemble small ones of Red-vented Bulbul, being pinkish white, heavily spotted and speckled with reddish brown. They measure about 20.9 × 15.7 mm.

3. Black-capped Bulbul is found in throughout the hills, up to at least 4,000 feet, and in scattered colonies in the dry zone except in the most arid parts. It prefers forest varied by open country, shoals and the like, to dense forest.

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